While scholarship in teaching and learning often provides empirical evidence that particular pedagogical methods work, the theory behind why they work is more likely to come out of scholarship in neuroscience, cognitive psychology or social psychology that examines how people learn and the factors associated with successful learning. As a whole, this literature is often called ‘learning science’ and has been popularized in trade books like Make It Stick: The Science of Successful Learning (Brown, et al, 2014) or Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home and School (Medina, 2014). The literature is vast but there are now several accessible books and resources that discuss its key lessons and what they mean specifically for college instructors:

While there is a lot that instructors can do to make sure their teaching methods are consistent with what we know from learning science, it can also be useful to make sure our students know, since many of the study methods students use are actually quite ineffective. The following resources are meant to be shared with students:

  • The Learning Scientists have a bunch of resources you can provide directly to students, including a downloadable poster highlighting six strategies for effective learning, and a series of blog posts (written for students) about each of the strategies.
    • Note: This post describes a learning project instructors could have students do to explicitly apply the six strategies.
  • Stephen Chew’s video series on ‘How to get the most out of studying’ is also aimed at students; the website includes a teaching guide with suggestions for class discussion after students watch the videos.
  • The article, Optimizing Learning in College: Tips From Cognitive Psychology (Putnam, et al, 2016) provides “a brief tutorial in how to optimize learning in a college course”, written for students.
  • A Practical Guide to Study Skills provides both an overview of the research literature and practical suggestions for students.
  • Study Strategies for Before, During and After Class provides a concise list of specific tips.